Pathanamthitta is a landlocked district situated in the southern part of the state, and is bordered by Kottayam and Idukki districts in the north, Alappuzha in the west, Kollam in the south and has a border with Tamil Nadu in the east. The district was made up from combining areas from the Alappuzha, Idukki and Kollam districts.
Pathanamthitta is a pre-dominantly agricultural district with major crops being coconut, rubber, paddy, pepper and tea. The hilly terrain coupled with high humidity make it suitable for rubber and tea plantations.
Hydroelectric power plants situated in the district provide one-third of the electricity demands of the state. Three important rivers, the Achankovil, Manimala and Pamba flow through the district. Pamba originates from Sabarimala and is considered a holy river.
Pathanamthitta holds the distinction of being declared the first polio-free district in India.
The district has more or less the same climate conditions as prevalent elsewhere in the State, viz., dry seasons from December to February and hot seasons from March to May. The southwest monsoon from June to September and the north west monsoon from October to November provide fairly good rain. The southwest monsoon is usually very heavy and about 75% of the annual rain is received during this season. The climate is generally moderate, the temperature rising from 20 to 39 degree Celsius.
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